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 All stages parasitize the same species of hosts. Ticks infest a wide range of mammals, but mainly ungulates. Principal hosts are livestock. Amongst wild mammals, these ticks prefer zebras, rhinoceroses, and large antelopes. Immature ticks feed on small antelopes and hares. Ticks occasionally attach to humans.

 It is a numerous species, especially in Somalia and Ethiopia, where over 1000 adults were collected from one animal. Ticks are most active during the wet season.

 It is a vector of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and other diseases in livestock.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

54.Rhipicephalus pumilio Schulze, 1935

 


Map 43

 Russia (Stavropol Kray, Kalmykia, Astrakhan Oblast, northern Chechen Republic, and Daghestan), Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Mongolia (southwestern), and China (Xingjiang and Inner Mongolia).

 Adults parasitize various mammals, preferring the tolai hare Lepus tolai and hedgehogs. In the Astrakhan Oblast, mass infestations on domestic dogs are reported. Ticks often attach to humans. Immature ticks feed on hares, hedgehogs, rodents, and birds. All stages are active during the entire warm season. Adults have a peak of activity in April to June, while larvae and nymphs have two peaks, one in April to May and another in July to August.

 It is a vector of Astrakhan fever, caused by Rickettsia conorii, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, and plague.

 Literature: Filippova (1997), Dash et al. (1988), Kolonin et al. (1994), Teng and Jiang (1991).

 

55.Rhipicephalus punctatus Warburton, 1912

 


Map 43

 Uganda (southern), Rwanda, Burundi, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Angola.

 Principal hosts of adults are cattle, middle-size antelopes, and hares. Immature ticks have not been described.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

56.Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, 1936

 


Map 43

 Portugal, Spain, France (southern), Italy, Morocco, and Tunis (Zembra Island).

 These ticks inhabit burrows of the rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus, on which all stages feed. They can occasionally infest carnivores, hedgehogs, and rodents as well. In Spain, adults parasitize rabbits all year round with maximum activity recorded in April to June, larvae are active from May to November with a peak in June to August, and nymphs are active from June to December with maximum activity recorded in July to September.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

57.Rhipicephalus ramachandrai Dhanda, 1966

 Rhipicephalus arakeri Hiregoudar, 1975

 


Map 43

 Pakistan (Sind), India (Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and Andhra Pradesh), and Nepal.

 Principal host of all stages is the Indian gerbil Tatera indica, but ticks were also found on rodents and a fox.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

58.Rhipicephalus rossicus Jakimov and Kohl-Jakimova, 1911

 


Map 22

 Bulgaria, Romania, Moldavia, Ukraine, Russia (Rostov, Voronezh, Saratov, Volgograd, Astrakhan and Orenburg Oblasts, Krasnodar and Stavropol Krays, Republic: North Osetia, Kalmykia, Chechen, and Daghestan), Georgia (eastern), Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan (?), Iran, China (Xingjiang), and Egypt (Sinai).

 Adults parasitize various mammals, both large and small, including murid rodents. Ticks usually occur on livestock, carnivores, hares, hedgehogs, and hamsters. They occasionally attach to humans. Immature ticks feed on small mammals and are occasionally found on birds.

 Adults are active during the entire warm season with maximum activity recorded in May to June. In Ukraine and the Volga region, larvae appear along with adults in April and are most numerous in May to June, and a second increase of activity is observed in August. Nymphs are most numerous on rodents in June to July.

 This species is a vector of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and tularemia.

 Literature: Filippova (1997), Walker et al. (2000).

 

59.Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)

 


Map 40

 Range of stable reproduction cover: all of Africa and Madagascar, southern Europe: Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Switzerland, former Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova, Ukraine (coast of the Black and Azov Seas), Russia (coast of the Black Sea and coast of the Caspian Sea in Daghestan), southern Asia to the north as far as Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan (southern), Pakistan, India, Nepal, China, Japan (Okinawa), Australia and Oceania, America to the north as far as Canada (southern Ontario and Quebec) and to the south as far as Chile, Argentina (Juijui, Formosa, Buenos Aires, and Chubut), and Uruguay. The range is getting wider.

 It is a three-host species. It is a specific parasite of the domestic dog, on which all stages feed. Sometimes ticks also parasitize other carnivores and ungulates. In Krasnodar kray adult ticks parasitize hedgehogs (unpublished data). Ticks rarely attach to humans. In the temperate zone, ticks produce one generation per year, but in the wet equatorial zone, three generations per year are produced.

 Literature: Kolonin (1995b), Filippova (1997), Need et al. (1991), Teng and Jiang (1991), Walker et al. (2000), Ruiz et al. (2003), Gonzalez-Acuña and Guglielmone (2005), Guglielmone et al. (2003a).

 

60.Rhipicephalus scalpturatus Santos Dias, 1959

 


Map 43

 India (Assam) and Nepal.

 Host is unknown. In Nepal, adults were collected from vegetation. Immature ticks have not been described.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

61.Rhipicephalus schulzei Olenev, 1929

 


Map 29

 Russia (Rostov, Volgograd and Astrakhan Oblasts, Krasnodar and Stavropol Krays, Republic: Kalmykia, Chechen and Daghestan), Azerbaijan (one finding), Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Iran (northern), and China (Xingjiang).

 Inhabitant of deserts, semi-deserts, and dry steppes, but they avoid wet biotopes.

 These ticks live in the burrows of various species of ground squirrels, mainly Citellus pygmaeus, C. fulvus, and C. major, which all stages of the tick parasitize. They are occasionally found on carnivores, most often on the steppe polecat Mustela eversmanni.

 Ticks are active from April to August, i.e. the period of their activity concurs with the season of activity of ground squirrels. All stages winter in burrows, becoming active after the hibernating ground squirrels arise free from ticks. Life cycle takes 1-2 years. It is a common species, and in the Volga region and Kazakhstan it is abundant.

 It is a vector of plague.

 Literature: Filippova (1997), Walker et al. (2000).

 

62.Rhipicephalus sculptus Warburton, 1912

 


Map 16

 Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia.

 Rare species. Adults were collected from zebras, giraffe, buffalo, sable antelopes, greater kudu, and waterbuck. Nymphs and larvae were described, but their hosts in nature are unknown.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

63.Rhipicephalus senegalensis Koch, 1844

 


Map 43

 West and Central Africa from Senegal to the east as far as southern Sudan, Uganda, and northern Zaire.

 Adults mainly parasitize cattle, warthogs, and buffalo, but ticks are also found on other ungulates and carnivores. Immature ticks feed on rodents. In Senegal, adults are most numerous during the rainy season.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

64.Rhipicephalus serranoi Santos Dias, 1950

 


Map 43

 Mozambique and Zambia (eastern).

 Rare species. Single findings of adults were taken from three species of hyraxes, leopard, and the antelope Oreotragus oreotragus. Immature ticks have not been described.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

65. Rhipicephalus simpsoni Nuttall, 1910

 


Map 41

 Guinea, Mali (southern), Liberia, Cote d’Ivore, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Benin, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Zaire, Congo, Sudan (southern), Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and the Republic of South Africa (northern).

 It is a three-host species. It is a specific parasite of the cane rat Thryonomys swinderianus, on which all stages feed. Ticks are occasionally found on other mammals as well.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

66.Rhipicephalus simus Koch, 1844

 


Map 62

Angola, Namibia, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and the Republic of South Africa.

 Host list of adults is extremely long. From among domestic animals, cattle and dogs are infested most often, and from among wild animals, warthogs, buffalo, large antelopes, zebras, and large carnivores are all preferred hosts. Ticks occasionally attach to humans. Immature ticks feed on rodents and hares. In the Republic of South Africa, larvae are active from March to June, nymphs are active from June to September, and imagines are active from August to February. Ticks produce one generation per year. It is a common species, but the intensity of the infestations on animals is not high.

 Tick bites can cause paralysis in animals and humans.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

67.Rhipicephalus sulcatus Neumann, 1908

 


Map 28

 Africa east of Sahara and Yemen.

 Adults parasitize various mammals, preferring domestic dogs and hares, and to a smaller degree carnivores and cattle. Larvae and nymphs have been described, but their hosts in nature are unknown. Adults are active during the rainy season.

 Literature: Walker et al. (2000).

 

68.Rhipicephalus supertritus Neumann, 1907

 


Map 44

 Eritrea, Ethiopia, Sudan (southern), Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, Zaire (eastern), Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe.


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Copyright© 2009 Kolonin G.V. All rights reserved. e-mail: kolonin@mnr.gov.ru